India conventional long name Republic of India (Hindi: भारत गणराज्य Bhārat Gaarājya; is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast.


The Indian economy is the world's tenth largest economy by nominal GDP and fourth largest economy by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India has become one of the fastest growing major economies, and is considered a newly industrialized country. A nuclear weapons state and a regional power, it has the third-largest standing army in the world, and ranks tenth in military expenditure among nations.


India is a federal constitutional republic with a parliamentary democracy consisting of 28 states and seven union territories, each state has its capital. It is one of the five BRICS nations. India is a pluralistic, multilingual, and multiethnic society. It is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats


Indian judiciary is divided by Supreme Court, High Courts, District Courts, Subordinate courts, and various special tribunals. Supreme Court has original, appellate and advisory jurisdiction and administrator of justice in entire India. It is the supreme authority over all courts of India.  All the High Courts are under the administrative and judicial control of Supreme Court. There are 21 High Courts in India generally state to state.  The District Courts of India are presided over by a judge. They administer justice in India at a district level. These courts are under administrative and judicial control of the High Court of the State to which the district concerned belongs. There are many other courts subordinate to the court of District and Sessions Judge.



 Short Information


Short name


ISO code


FIPS code



Hindi (hi), English (en), etc.

Time zone


International dialing code:


Internet domain


GNI per capita

US $720 (World Bank, 2006)

Monetary unit

 1 Indian Rupee = 100 paise


New Delhi




Official Name


Republic of India; Short Name – India; Local - Bharat



New Delhi (Financial Capital – Mumbai)

Other Major Cities


Greater Mumbai; Pune; Kolkata (Calcutta); Chennai (Madras); Hyderabad; Bangalore; Ahmedabad

Land Area


29,73,190 SQ KM



Official Language – Hindi; 400 registered languages, of which 18 are officially recognised, like Hindi, Bengali, Tamil or Urdu. English is an associated language, widely used for administrative purposes. There are 16 official regional languages and infinity of local variants.



Over 100 Crores or 1 Billion



Rupees; 1 Euro = 50 Rupees



83 per cent Hindu, 11 per cent Muslim, 2.50 per cent Sikh, 2 per cent Christian, 1 per cent Buddhist.

Average life expectancy


Male 63.25 years, Female 64.77 years



Male 77.2%, Female 58.3%

Number of internet users


356.80 Lakhs or 36.58 million people

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